2014.09.01 12:40

2014 9월의 시작

 (2014년 5월. 바토무슈를 타고 가면서 하늘을 바라다보며 감탄하던 시간~) 


9월의 첫 날이다. 기분좋게도 월요일이다. 그리고 기분좋게도 아침부터 날씨가 좋다.

너무 좋다못해 여름처럼 느껴지긴 하지만, 늦여름을 좋아하는 나로서는 오늘의 날씨가 매우 만족스럽다.

여전히 여름의 푸르름이 살아있고, 살랑살랑한 시원한 가을 바람이 있다.


그렇게 나는 또 하루를 산다.

주말에 행사를 치르면서 느낀 점은...

이렇게 가시는 분들이 있고, 또 친구들을 보면서 이렇게 태어나서 새 생명이 세상에 발을 디디기도 한다는 걸 새삼 깨달았다.

귀중한 생명들이 태어난다. 축복받은 삶.

그리고 또 가시는 분들은 또 다른 축복을 누리러 가시는 것...


순간순간 숨을 쉬면서 '죽음과 또 다른 삶'을 향해 가는 나는

정신 똑바로 차리고 살아야 한다.


그래 제대로 눈 뜨고 내가 해야할 일들을 잊지말고 살아야 한다.

내일이면 또 잊은 채 살아가겠지만...

아니, 한 시간 뒤에도 그저 잊고 살아가고 있겠지만...

계속해서 리마인드가 필요한 것 같다.


내 삶을 돌아보고 정리하고 계획할 필요가 있는 날이다.


Posted by 아이스티를 즐기는 여자
2014.08.29 20:00

2014년 8월의 마지막 주말

    (2014년 5월 초. 프랑스 몽생미셸 가는 길에 드넓은 목초지에서 울어대는 양떼들을 보며...)


잊을 수 없는 주말이 될 것 같다.

내 평생에 있어서, 절대 결코 잊을 수 없는 날이 될 것이다.

소중한 시간을 보내고 와야지...

많이 느끼고 결심을 하고 와야지...


Spending the weekend in all black...

Posted by 아이스티를 즐기는 여자
2014.08.07 19:40

도(道)

(가슴 탁 트이던 이 곳에서의 추억이 그립다. 파도소리 들으며 도시락 까먹던 그 시간을 회상하며...^0^)



매일 매일 도()를 닦는 기분이다...

내가 그리 마음 넓은 사람이 아니어서 더욱 더 그렇게 생각되어질 수도 있다.

아...

오늘 하루, 한숨이 너무 절로 나와 숨이 턱턱 막혔다.

언제까지 기다려야하나...

내가 너무 기대치가 높나...

나도 뭐 잘하는 것 하나 없으면서 이렇게 판단해서는 안 되는 것이지만...

알지만...

참 어렵다.

언제까지 기다려줘야 혼자서도 잘 할 수 있는거니...

조금씩 지쳐간다.

좀 더 기분 좋게 하자.

기분 좋게...

좋게 좋게...

애쓰자.


잘하지도 못하는 나를 돌아보고 반성하면서 말이다.


[다번역성경찬송] 


누가복음 6장


41. 어찌하여 형제의 눈 속에 있는 티는 보고 네 눈 속에 있는 들보는 깨닫지 못하느냐



Posted by 아이스티를 즐기는 여자
2014.08.06 08:38

새로운 마음 가짐


어제의 하루는 마치 내게 신년을 시작하는 1월 1일과 같음 마음이었다. 그냥 느낌이 그랬다. 뭔가 새로 시작하는 기분.

여름 휴가가 마치고 시작된 첫 날 8월 4일 월요일.

이렇게 시간은 가고 해는 바뀌고 나는 나이를 먹어간다.


평상시와는 다르게 조금 특별하게 느껴질 수 있었던 지난 한주를 보내고 나니, 여느 때와 다름이 없었던 것 같다. 항상 보낸 것처럼 그렇게 똑같이 보냈다.

그리고 나는 이렇게 책상에 다시 앉아 있다. 


책을 많이 가까이 해야겠다고 생각했다.

내가 허투루 보내는 그 시간들. 소중한 시간들을 쓸데없는 책들 말고 나에게 진정 살이 되고 피가 되는 책들을 많이 접하면서 시간을 채워나가야겠다고 생각했다.


그리고 마음을 많이 챙겨야겠다는 생각? 항상  내가 먼저였고, 다른 사람 신경 쓰지 않았지만 이제 주위를 둘러보고 많이 챙겨보고 싶다는 욕심도 생겼다.


아직 머릿 속에 정리가 안 된건지 글로도 정리가 되어지지 않네. 하지만 여튼, 단 한가지. 그것만은 마음 속 깊이 두고두고 새겨야겠다. 그리고 실천해야겠다. 진심으로...

Posted by 아이스티를 즐기는 여자
2014.07.25 18:58

사색과 정리가 필요한 때

A.

2014.7.25.Sat  (이젠 더 이상 검색어에 뜨지도 않는 날.)


이 나라가 온통 난리 법석을 떨었고, 지금도 혼란 속에 있다. 이 일의 마무리가 어떻게 될지 전혀 예상 불가능.

우리 나라가 영화를 한 편 찍는 것 같은 느낌 속에서 하루하루를 보내고 있음... 

얼른 "오케이~~" 사인과 함께 이 영화 촬영이 끝났으면 하는 마음이 간절한 요새.


최근들어 많은 생각들이 내 머릿속에 오고갔는데, 정작 정리를 해 놓질 않았네. 아쉽다.

이런 때 일수록 더 기록과 정리가 필요한 법인데... 늦지 않았다 생각하고 간단하게라도 남기려 한다.


(폰으로 슬라이드쇼를 틀어놓고 이 글을 적고 있다. 클래식 노래를 들으니 더 감동적이네~)


아직 믿어지지 않는 많은 일들이 일어났고, 계속해서 일어나고 있다. 많은 일들이 너무 한꺼번에 말도 안 되게 일어나는 바람에 하는 일도 없으면서 이렇게 시간을 그.저. 보내버렸지만. 그 와중에 난 참 많은 것들을 배웠고, 많이 강해졌으리라 생각이 된다. 그리고 앞으로는 더 담대하고 강해져야겠다고 생각한다. 어제 저녁에 결심한 부분을 지켜나가고자 한다.



요 며칠 뉴스에서 계속 시끄러웠던... 그러다가 오늘 검색어에 이젠 더이상 뜨지도 않는 그 사람에 대해서 

혹시나해서 위키피디아를 찾아봤더니 이렇게 정리가 되어 있다. 나중에 내용이 어떻게 바뀌는지 한번, 비교해봐야지.



http://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/%EC%9C%A0%EB%B3%91%EC%96%B8


유병언

위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전.
유병언

출생1941년 2월 11일
일본 제국 일본 제국 교토 부 교토 시
사망2014년 5월에서 6월 사이
대한민국 대한민국 전라남도 순천시 서면
국적대한민국 대한민국
별칭호 아해(兒孩)
학력성광고등학교 졸업
경력기독교복음침례회(교주)
세모그룹(회장)
직업기업인종교인사진작가
종교기독교복음침례회
배우자권윤자
자녀아들 유대균, 유혁기
딸 유섬나, 유상나
친척형 유병일, 동생 유경희, 유병호
병역방위병 복무[출처 필요]

유병언(兪炳彦[1],1941년 2월 11일 ~ 2014년 5월에서 6월 사이)은 대한민국의 종교인이자 기업인사진작가로 기독교복음침례회의 지도자이자 세모그룹의 창업주 겸 총수이다. [2] 본관은 기계(杞溪)이다.

생애

초기

일본 제국 교토 시에서 사업을 하던 한국인의 아들로 태어나 일제가 패망한 직후인 1945년 8월 가족들과 함께 한국에 귀국, 부모의 고향인 대구에 정착하였다. 학창 시절 그는 학업 성적은 우수하지 않았지만 어떤 일이든지 몰두하는 성격과 함께 뛰어난 손재주를 가졌다는 평을 들었고, 이러한 손재주가 훗날 그가 기업인으로 활동하는 데 큰 밑거름이 되었다고 한다.[3] 성광고등학교를 졸업한 후[4] 미국인 독립 선교사 딕 욕(Dick York)이 운영하는 성경학교를 수료하고 신앙 생활을 시작하였으며, 1962년부터 권신찬(權信燦, 1923년 ~ 1996년)이 대구에 개척한 교회에 출석하면서 그로부터 신임을 얻고 1966년 그의 딸 권윤자와 결혼하였다.[5] 1972년에는 미국 국제 복음주의 동맹 선교회(TEAM) 산하에 있던 공산권 선교 방송국인 극동방송에서 설교 프로그램을 맡고 있던 장인 권신찬의 추천으로 극동방송 부국장 자리에 올랐으나 이들의 설교 방식과 신학에 비판이 제기되어 1974년 권신찬 및 추종자 10여명과 함께 자리에서 물러났다. 1981년 12월 종교법인 지위 확보를 위해 권신찬은 기독교복음침례회를 교단으로 정식으로 발족하였으나 유병언은 기존에 서클로서 움직여 왔던 평신도복음선교회의 지위를 고집하였다.

기업 활동

1976년 봉제완구 제조 및 수출업체인 삼우무역(三友貿易, 삼우트레이딩)을 인수하여[6] 기업인으로 활동을 시작한 유병언은 1979년 주식회사 세모를 설립, 건강식품, 선박제조, 자동차부품, 건설 등 9개 계열사를 거느린 종합 기업으로 성장시켰다. 세모라는 이름의 의미에 대해 유병언은 안정감을 주는 모든 도형의 기초인 삼각형을 의미한다고 밝힌 바 있으나, 구약성경 출애굽기의 유대인 지도자 모세의 이름을 뒤집었다는 견해도 있다.[7] 1986년에는 선박 사업 경험이 없었음에도 불구하고 한강 유람선 사업권을 취득하여 주목을 받았으나,[8] 1990년 선착장에 정박중이던 세모 유람선 2척이 태풍으로 떠내려온 경쟁업체 유람선과 충돌, 표류하다가 마포대교 교각을 들이받고 침몰하여 유람선을 정박하던 세모 직원 14명이 사망하거나 실종되기도 하였다.[9]

1991년 5월에는 한강 유람선 사업에서 철수한 원광해운 유람선 2척을 인수하여 한강 유람선을 독점 운항하게 되었으나[10] 이 무렵 오대양 집단 자살 사건과 연루되면서 구속 수감되었다. 이듬해 오대양 대표 박순자로부터 자금을 받았다는 부분에는 무죄를 선고받았으나 기독교복음침례회 신도들의 헌금을 상습 횡령하였다는 혐의는 유죄로 인정되어 징역 4년 확정 판결을 받고 복역하였다.[11] 1995년에는 세모에서 해운사업부를 분사시켜 자회사 세모해운을 설립하고 서해안과 남해안 20여개 항로에 총 27척의 여객선과 화객선을 운항하는 대한민국 최대의 연안여객선업체로 성장시켰으나 이후 무리한 투자 후유증으로 경영난을 겪다가 1997년 부도 처리됐다. [12][13]

부도 이후

부도 이후 세모의 해운 사업은 1998년 온바다해운(2006년 경영난으로 폐업)을 거쳐[14] 1999년 3월 그의 아들들에 의해 설립된 청해진해운으로 승계되었으며, 세모의 한강 유람선 사업은 2004년 세양선박에 매각되었다.[15] 경상남도 고성군에 있던 세모의 조선사업부는 2005년 7월 주식회사 천해지로 분사하였다. 이후 유병언은 대외적으로 기업 활동을 중단하였고, 한동안 대한민국에서 행방이 알려지지 않았다.

사진작가 활동

2014년 세월호 침몰 사고를 일으킨 청해진해운의 모기업 아이원아이홀딩스 계열사 명단에 아해(AHAE)라는 이름의 기업이 올라있는 것이 확인되고, 아이원아이홀딩스 대주주인 유병언의 차남 유혁기가 아해 국제사진전을 주관하는 '아해프레스'의 대표인 것으로 확인되면서, 미국에서 활동중인 사업가 겸 사진작가로 알려진 '아해'라는 인물이 유병언과 동일인물이 아니냐는 논란이 제기되었고,[16]이는 사실인 것으로 밝혀졌다.[2][17]

아마추어급 수준의 사진 작품들로 프랑스 파리의 베르사유 궁전 등 유럽 각지에서 개인 전시회를 열면서 런던 교향악단을 초청하는 등 주목받았으나, 전시회를 성사시키기 위해서 거액의 후원금을 제공했다는 사실이 밝혀졌다. 루브르 박물관 전시회를 위해서 유병언은 110만 유로(약 16억 )를 기부했고 베르사유 궁전 분수 재단장 사업비 140만 유로(약 20억 원)을 부담한 것이 밝혀졌다.[18]천해지는 2012년 국제사진전을 주관하는 ‘아해프레스 프랑스’와 사진 예술 작품을 파는 헤마토 센트릭 라이프 연구소에 각각 14억원, 12억원을 투자했다.[19]

세월호 침몰 사고

2014년 4월 16일 전라남도 진도군 해상에서 발생한 세월호 침몰 사고를 수사하는 과정에서, 유병언이 청해진해운 조직도에 "회장"이라는 직함으로 기재되어 있으며 청해진해운으로부터 매월 1,000만원의 급여와 자문료를 지급받아 실소유주로서 경영에 직접 관여한 정황이 포착되었다.[20] 검찰청은 유병언과 그의 장남 유대균을 소환하여 이에 관련한 사실을 조사하고자 하였으나 이들은 세 차례의 출석 요구에도 응하지 않고 경기도 안성시 소재 기독교복음침례회 연수원인 금수원 안에 잠적했다가 검찰·경찰 합동수사본부가 금수원에 진입하기 이전에 빠져나왔다. 이에 인천지방검찰청은 유병언과 유대균에 대한 구속영장을 발부받아 총 8,000만원의 현상금을 걸고 이들 부자를 공개 수배하였다.[21] 이후 제보자들의 적극적인 참여를 유도하기 위하여 대한민국 형사범 사상 최고의 현상금 액수인 6억원(유병언 5억, 유대균 1억)으로 인상하였다.[22]

한편, 검찰·경찰 합동수사본부는 수사를 통해 세월호의 대한민국 도입 및 증축 과정에서 유병언이 자신의 개인 전시실을 만들기 위하여 무리한 증축을 지시하고, 복원성 문제를 보고받자 오하마나호를 먼저 매각하라고 지시한 사실을 파악하였다.[23][24]

세월호 침몰 사고 이후 행적

망명 가능성 타진

인천지방검찰청 특별수사팀은 "최근 익명의 인사가 대한민국 주재 모 대사관에 유병언 전 회장의 정치적 망명 가능성을 타진했지만 해당 대사관에서 단순 형사범이라는 이유로 망명 신청을 거절했다"고 밝혔다. 검찰은 해당 국가가 어디인지는 밝히지 않았으며 "복수의 국가는 아니다"라고 전했다. 유병언 측의 어떤 인물이, 어떤 방식으로 이를 시도했는지에 대해서도 "파악해봐야 한다"고 말을 아꼈다. 유병언은 망명 이유로 '종교적·정치적 박해'를 든 것으로 알려졌으나, 망명 가능성이 있다고 해도 본인이 직접 해당 대사관을 찾아야 하기 때문에 유병언이 검찰의 수사망을 뚫고 대사관을 방문해 실제로 망명 절차를 밟기는 쉽지 않을 것으로 보인다. 검찰은 유병언이 다른 국가 대사관을 통해서도 망명 가능성을 타진할 가능성이 있다고 보고 외교부를 통해 각국 대사관에 협조를 요청했다. 이어 "유 전 회장이 종교적 박해 또는 정치적 박해를 받는다고 주장할지 모르지만 유 전 회장의 피의사실은 계열사 자금 횡령·배임, 조세포탈 등이므로 종교 또는 정치와 전혀 무관한 형사범"이라며 "유엔(UN) 협약상 난민에 해당하지 않는다"고 덧붙였다. 검찰은 또 유병언의 망명 가능성을 타진해 준 익명의 인물에 대해 "망명을 빙자하여 유씨의 도피를 도운 사람은 범인도피에 명백히 해당한다"며 사법처리 대상이라는 점을 경고했다. 유병언의 망명 신청에 그의 매제인 오갑렬 전 체코 주재 대한민국 대사가 역할을 했을 가능성이 제기되었다.[25]

재산 가압류

정부가 유병언을 포함한 세월호 참사의 책임자들을 상대로 재산 가압류를 신청하면서 피해자들에 대한 보상이 본격 진행될 전망이다. 가압류 신청은 명목상 국가가 세월호 참사로 썼거나 앞으로 들어갈 비용에 대한 구상권 청구의 첫 단계다. 소송으로 받아내게 될 유병언 일가 등의 재산 중 상당액은 세월호 피해자의 몫으로 돌아갈 것으로 보인다. 6월 26일 법조계에 따르면 법무부는 지난 20일 유병언과 세월호 선장 이준석 등의 재산에 대해 가압류를 신청하면서 피보전채권액을 4천 31억 5천만원으로 설정했다. 정부가 이들에게 받아낼 채권이 그만큼 있다는 뜻이다. 여기에는 희생자 구조·수습, 가족들에 대한 지원비용 등 세월호 참사와 관련한 정부의 지출 일체와 인양작업을 비롯해 앞으로 들어갈 예상비용, 정부가 우선 부담할 피해자들에 대한 보상금까지 포함됐다. 그동안 이런 비용은 5∼6천억원으로 추산되어 왔다.[26]

시신 발견

세월호 참사와 관련해 유병언이 두달 가까이 검찰의 수사망을 피해온 가운데, 2014년 6월 12일 전라남도 순천시에서 발견된 남성 변사체가 유병언이 확실한 것으로 결론내려졌다.[27] 경찰 관계자는 “국과수에서 이 주검의 DNA를 유 전 회장 친형의 DNA와 비교한 결과, 유 전 회장의 DNA가 맞는 것으로 통보해왔다”고 말하였다. 사체는 발견 당시 겨울용 점퍼에 벙거지를 쓴 채 하늘을 바라보고 누워 있었던 것으로 알려졌다. 반백골화가 80% 가량 진행된 상태로 정확한 사망 시점은 아직 확인되지 않았으나, 타살 혐의점은 없는 것으로 확인되었다.[28] 유병언의 시신이 6월 12일 이미 입수되었고, 반 백골화가 진행되어 시신의 부패와 손가락등의 지문 수집에 어려움을 겪었으나, DNA 조사 및 시신의 오른쪽 검지 지문 1점을 채취하여 검색한 결과 유병언이 확실하다고 검찰측이 2014년 7월 22일 밝혔다.[29] 이로써 유병언은 도피생활 도중 생을 마감한 것으로 결론났으나, 사망 시점이나 사인에 대해서는 아직 정확하게 확인되지 않고 있다.

일부 경찰 및 지역 주민들은 해당 시신이 유병언이 아닌 인근을 배회하던 노숙인일 가능성을 제기하였으나,[30] 국립과학수사연구소 측이 시신의 유전자를 채취, 분석한 결과 안성 금수원 및 순천 송치재 별장에서 채취된 유병언의 유전자와 완벽하게 일치되며 그의 형 유병일의 유전자와도 일치점이 있는 것으로 판명되었고,[31]경찰은 변사체의 유전자 감식과 지문 확인을 통해 해당 시신이 유병언 전 세모그룹 회장의 것임을 확인했다고 최종 발표하였다.[32]

아울러 사망한 지 짧은 시간만에 시신이 심하게 부패될 수 있느냐는 의혹에 대해서도 표창원 범죄과학연구소장은 충분한 의혹 제기 가능성을 언급하면서 “시신의 평소 건강 상태나 지병, 장기의 어떤 훼손, 외부적인 습도나 온도, 그리고 특히 상처가 있느냐에 따라서 다르다”며 “상처가 있을 경우에는 피 때문에 동물이나 곤충들이 더 많이 몰려들게 되고 부패를 가속화 시켜 세균 번식도 많아지고, 그런 것 때문에 불가능한 상태는 아니다“라고 지적하였고,[33] 이윤성 서울대학교 법의학과 교수도 "야생동물은 부패 자체를 결정하지는 않지만 시체 훼손을 많이 관여하며, 야생동물이 피부를 훼손하면 거기에 균이나 파리 등등이 개입하기가 훨씬 쉬워져 부패가 더 빨리 진행이 된다"고 지적, 이러한 상황이 충분히 가능함을 시사하였다.[34]

한편, 경찰청은 유병언의 시신 발견 초기 초동수사를 미흡하게 한 책임을 물어 순천경찰서 지휘부들에 대한 문책에 들어갔다.[35]

특이 사항

  • 유병언과 그 일가가 13개 해외법인을 통하여 대한민국 및 타 국가에 보유한 주식과 부동산 등의 가치가 한화 약 2,400억원에 달하는 것으로 파악되었다.[2] 대한민국에서 신분을 숨기고 자신의 호인 아해라는 이름만을 내세워 사진작가로 활동하면서 2012년에는 프랑스 남부에 자리잡은 쿠르베피(프랑스어: Courbefy) 마을을 52만 유로(약 7억 7,000만 )에 통째로 사들여 주목받기도 했다.[36]
  • 태권도 유단자로서 1968년에 이미 공인 5단을 획득하였고,[3] 현재는 공인 7단인 것으로 알려져 있다. 당시 대구권에서 무술계의 실권자로 활약하던 전두환의 친동생 전경환과 이 때 무술을 통해 맺은 인연이 계기가 되어 훗날 그가 기업 활동을 할 당시 전경환으로부터 많은 도움을 받을 수 있었다고 한다.[3][8]
  • 대한민국 정치계와 연예계에 상당한 인맥을 가지고 있는 것으로 알려졌다. 배우 전양자는 기독교복음침례회의 핵심 인물 가운데 하나이며, 가수 겸 매니지먼트 기업인 박진영은 그의 조카사위이다.[5]
  • 그에게는 5명의 핵심참모가 있으며 모두 여성이다.
    • 김혜경 한국제약 대표
    • 김경숙 국제영상 대표이사
    • 김명점 세모신협 이사장
    • 윤두화 아이원 아이홀딩스 이사
    • 이순자[37] 전(前) 문진미디어 대표이사

롱 갤러리

저서

주석

  1. 이동 朴의원 오대양관련 또 자료공개, 연합뉴스 1991년 7월 24일자
  2. ↑ 이동:   세모그룹 유병언家 '두 얼굴', 이데일리 2014년 4월 22일자
  3. ↑ 이동:   세모 兪炳彦(유병언)사장은 누구 5共(공)권력과「핫라인」개설"막강위세", 경향신문 1991년 7월 25일자
  4. 이동 인재의 힘으로 앞서거니 뒤서거니, 시사저널 2012년 7월 18일자
  5. ↑ 이동:  '구원파'로 맺어진 유병언 인맥…정계에서 연예계까지, 머니투데이 2014년 5월 2일자
  6. 이동 삼우(三友)트레이딩 이사 7명으로 출범, 연합뉴스 1991년 7월 25일자
  7. 이동 '구원파' 교회배치도 삼각형…세모·트라이곤·삼각지, 왜?, 머니투데이 2014년 4월 24일자
  8. ↑ 이동:  '세월호' 선사 청해진해운 '전신'(前身) 세모그룹 과거 보니, 머니투데이 2014년 4월 22일자
  9. 이동 세월호 침몰로 '세모그룹' 한강 유람선 침몰 사건 재조명, 머니투데이 2014년 4월 22일자
  10. 이동 漢江(한강)뱃길「세모」독무대, 경향신문 1991년 5월 1일자
  11. 이동 오대양사건 兪炳彦(유병언)씨 上告(상고)기각 4년刑(형)확정], 동아일보1992년 9월 23일자
  12. 이동 청해진해운 실소유주, '오대양 사건' 관련자 가족들, 오마이뉴스 2014년 4월 18일자
  13. 이동 청해진해운 진짜주인, 세모유람선 유병언家, 이데일리 2014년 4월 18일자
  14. 이동 청해진 관계사 ‘온바다’ 여객선도 참사 빚을뻔, 한겨레 2014년 4월 24일자
  15. 이동 <세월호참사> 세모그룹 사업 인수 회사들 잇따라 '몰락', 연합뉴스 2014년 4월 30일자
  16. 이동 사진작가 아해, 유병언 세모그룹 전 회장과 동일인…수사당국 조사중, 서울신문 2014년 4월 22일
  17. 이동 유병언 세모그룹 전 회장, 집단자살 '오대양 사건' 연루 미스터리, 아시아경제 2014년 4월 22일
  18. 이동 유씨의 루브르 사진 展示는 거액 기부해 성사된 것… 베르사유궁전 분수 재단장하는 데도 20억원 후원, 조선일보 4월 26일자
  19. 이동 청해진해운 유병언 일가…실제 재산 2400억 달해, 세계일보 2014년 4월 22일
  20. 이동 청해진해운, 유병언 전 회장에 급여 지급 드러나, 이투데이 2014년 5월 9일자
  21. 이동 유병언 부자 공개 수배, "증거인멸 우려" 현상금 8000만원..."재산이 얼만데 겨우", 서울경제 2014년 5월 23일자
  22. 이동 유병언 현상금, 역대 최고액 '5억' 내건 이유 뭔가 했더니…, 서울경제 2014년 5월 26일자
  23. 이동 <세월호참사> 유병언 전시실 위해 '무리한 증축', 연합뉴스 2014년 5월 26일자
  24. 이동 유병언, 세월호 도입·증축 모두 관여… 복원성 상실도 보고 받았다, 경향신문 2014년 5월 26일자
  25. 이동 檢 "유병언, 외국에 망명 시도…거절당해"(종합2보) - 뉴스1, 2014년 6월 3일
  26. 이동 <유병언 재산 세월호 희생자에 환원 '첫 단추'> - 연합뉴스, 2014년 6월 26일
  27. 이동 [긴급 경찰 “유병언 추정 변사체…형 DNA와 거의 일치”], 한겨레 2014년 7월 22일자
  28. 이동 전남 순천서 '유병언 사체' 40일전 발견(종합2보) - 연합뉴스, 2014년 7월 22일
  29. 이동 유병언 추정 사체 옆에 로로피아나·와시바·스쿠알렌이…서울경제, 2014년 7월 22일
  30. 이동 유병언 시신 확인에도 여전히 찜찜한 의문은 무엇, 국제신문 2014년 7월 22일자
  31. 이동 국과수, 유병언 시신에서 유전자 하루만에 확인, 연합뉴스 2014년 7월 22일자
  32. 이동 [유병언 시신 확인] 대퇴부 뼈 유전자 감식·지문 대조 결과 “일치” 결론, 국민일보 2014년 7월 23일자
  33. 이동 표창원 “유병언 시신 맞나, 수많은 의혹 제기될 것”, 이데일리 2014년 7월 23일자
  34. 이동 법의학자가 본 유병언 추정 변사체…의혹은?, YTN 2014년 7월 22일자
  35. 이동 '유병언 시신 초동수사 미흡' 수사라인 줄줄이 경질 왜?, 국제신문 2014년 7월 22일
  36. 이동 안전점검엔 54만원…佛시골마을 통째 매입 유병언 일가는?, 머니투데이 2014년 4월 22일자
  37. 이동 전두환의 배우자와는 동명이인이다.
  38. ↑ 이동:   (프랑스어)Hasquenoph, Bernard (2013년 8월 29일). Ahae à Versailles, le privilège de l'argent. www.louvrepourtous.fr. 2014년 5월 22일에 확인.

같이 보기

바깥 고리




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yoo_Byung-eun


Yoo Byung-eun

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a Korean name; the family name is Yoo.
Yoo Byung-eun
2014-06-21 portrait from poster yoo byung-eun.jpg
Yoo Byung-eun
Born11 February 1941
Kyoto, Japan
Died2014 (aged 73)
Suncheon, South Korea
ResidenceGeumsuwon,Anseong, South Korea
NationalitySouth Korean
Other names"Ahae", "The Millionaire with no Face"
Alma materSeonggwang High School
OccupationPastor,[1] inventor, businessman, photographer
Known forMV Sewol
Home townDaegu
Spouse(s)Kwon Yun-ja (married 1966–present)
Children4
Korean name
Hangul
Hanja[2]
Revised RomanizationYu Byeong-eon[3]
McCune–ReischauerYu Pyŏng'ŏn
Website
www.ahae.com
www.ahaenews.com

Yoo Byung-eun (Hangul: 유병언; hanja: 兪炳彦; RR: Yu Byeong-eon; 11 February 1941 – 2014) was a South Korean religious leader, businessman, and inventor, who as a photographer was known under the art nameAhae.[4] Due to his reclusiveness, he was known as "the millionaire with no face".[5]

Believed to be the de facto leader of the company operating the ferry MV Sewol that sank en route from Incheon towards Jeju on 16 April 2014, Yoo had gone into hiding and was Korea's most-wanted fugitive, after the IncheonDistrict Court issued an arrest warrant on 22 May. South Korean authorities initially offered a 50 million (~US$48,800) reward for information leading to the arrest of Yoo.[6][7] On 25 May the reward was raised tenfold to ₩500 million (~US$488,000).[8][9] On 21 July, it was reported that a body found in a field in June is believed to be Yoo's.[10]

Early life and education[edit]

Yoo was born in Kyoto, Japan to Korean parents on 11 February 1941.[11] Yoo's family returned to Korea following the liberation from Japanese colonial rule in 1945 and settled in Daegu, where Yoo graduated from Seonggwang High School.[12]

Career[edit]

Religious call[edit]

According to the U.S.-based non-profit organization Evangelical Media Group (www.god.com) created by Yoo in 2001,[13] "he first began to live for the sake of the gospel in 1961," and that he "worked as an inventor and businessman to support the spreading of the gospel all over the world".[14] Yoo was one of 11 students admitted to the Good News Mission Bible school established in Korea by American and English missionaries, but he was expelled.[15] He founded what later became the Evangelical Baptist Church of Korea, also known as the Salvation Sect,[16] in 1962 with his father-in-law, Pastor Kwon Shin-chan (권신찬; 1923–96).[17][18] The church was held to be a cult by the conservative Christian denomination, the General Assembly of Presbyterian Churches, in 1992.[19]

Samwoo Trading[edit]

Yoo, while still serving as a pastor, got his start in business when acquiring the bankrupt textile company Samwoo Trading Co. (삼우무역) in 1976.[20][21] He took over as CEO in 1978, and turned it into a toy manufacturing and export company.[22][23] Yoo went into shipping when he founded Semo Corp. (주식회사 세모) in 1979,[24] a holding company that came to span shipping, shipbuilding, domestic ferry businesses, electronics, real estate, cosmetics, paint, stuffed toys, pewter, and various other ventures.[25][26][27][28][29][30][31] Semo started operating ferries on Seoul's Han River in 1986, two years before the city held the Summer Olympics.[32][33][34]

Odaeyang mass suicide[edit]

Yoo came to public attention in connection with the Odaeyang mass suicide in 1987. Police were investigating accusations against a 48-year-old woman, Park Soon-ja, saying that she had swindled 8.9 billion (~US$8.7 million) from about 220 people.[35][36] Her company Odaeyang Trading Co. was a firm that fronted for a religious sect led by Park, which was a splinter group from Yoo's Evangelical Baptist Church of Korea.[37] Yoo has denied any link to the group.[38] On 29 August 1987 thirty-two members of the sect who believed in doomsday, including Park Soon-ja and her three children, were found dead, bound and gagged.[39][40] Police assumed the event was a murder–suicide pact, and the prosecution initially suspected that Yoo was linked to the case;[41][42] but he was never charged, and the police closed the case as a mass suicide.[43][44][45][46] After six people, including a former follower of Park named Kim Do-hyun,[47] surrendered to authorities on 10 July 1991,[48] the case was re-opened and investigation into Odaeyang Trading Co. revealed that the bulk part of 17 billion (~US$17 million) in private loans had been funneled into the company Semo Corp. run by Yoo.[49][50][51] Yoo was arrested and, in 1992, convicted of "habitual fraud under the mask of religion" for his role in colluding with one of his employees to collect donations from church members in the amount of 1.2 billion (~US$1.15 million) and invest them in his businesses. He served a 4-year prison term.[7][52][53][54][55][56]

Semo Corp[edit]

By 1990, Semo Corp. had 1,800 employees,[57] but the ferry businesses suffered maritime accidents. In 1990, 14 Semo workers were killed when their cruise ship on the Han River was hit by another ship.[7][58] The company was cleared of any liability for the incident.[32] Semo grew into the biggest ferry operator by 1994, operating 30 ships,[59][60][61] and once had nearly 3,000 employees.[29]

Semo Group filed for bankruptcy with more than ₩300 billion (~US$294 million) in debts amidst the 1997 Asian financial crisis, in the wake of a series of highly publicized scandals, citing business diversification as the cause of a cash shortage that had fuelled a rise in debts in its bankruptcy protection petition, and was liquidated.[32][56][62]

After Semo's bankruptcy, Yoo's family continued to operate ferry businesses under the names of other companies, including one that eventually becameChonghaejin Marine, and grew to become the monopolistic operator of ferries linking Incheon and Jeju.[63][64][65]

Chonghaejin Marine Company Ltd. was set up two years later on 24 February 1999, a day before a court approved the restructuring of the bankrupt Semo, and became a key entity to consolidate Semo's shipping business, taking over ships and assets held by Semo Marine, and had its debts written off.[19][32][62][65][66][67]

Other ventures[edit]

According to Chaebul.com, an online information provider on large businesses, Yoo and his family own 30 business operators, with 13 doing business abroad such as in the U.S., Hong Kong and France. Their combined assets amount to some ₩500 billion (~US$480 million).[62] The collective assets of the 13 overseas operations surged to ₩166.5 billion (~US$158 million) at the end of 2013.[67] In France in 2012, Yoo made headlines prior to his photo exhibition in the Tuileries Garden at The Louvre when he through his public relations company, Ahae Press, bought the abandoned village of Courbefy for €520,000 (US$663,000, ₩767.5 million).[68][69][70][71][72] Yoo had seen it on CNN,[73] and wanted to set up an "environmental, artistic and cultural" project in the village.[74][75][76] Yoo has a wide range of other business interests according to official documents and information on company websites.[14] He owns a plantation in the United States called 123Farm,[77][78] one of the largest organic lavender farms in California started in 2001 at the site of the Highland Springs Resort,[79] a 2,400 acres (970 ha; 3.8 sq mi) property consisting of a 56-room hotel, conference center, and restaurants. Yoo was chairman of the board of the company that bought the resort in May 1990 for US$6.75 million.[80] I-One-I Holdings subsidiary Dapanda owns 9.9 percent of the Highland Springs Conference and Training Centre at the resort, according to regulatory filings.[81][82]

Inventions[edit]

As an inventor, Yoo holds multiple patents, one being for a colonic irrigation system,[83] for which he received an International Federation of Inventors' Associations' prize at the 2006 Seoul International Invention Fair.[84] The invention is marketed in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Germany, South Korea, Philippines, and Malaysia by NaeClear,[85] and is sold in South Korea by the company Dapanda. It "arose from the concept of Hemato-Centric Health, which revolves around the blood as being the center of life." supposedly a concept created by Yoo and his non-profit research organization Hemato-Centric Life Institute (New York) chaired by his younger son Keith H. Yoo (Yoo Hyuk-kee, 유혁기; born 1972);[86][87] sponsored by NaeClear Co., Ltd. and daughter Yoo Som-na's company Moreal Design Inc., Yoo delivered keynote speeches at the 2010-13 Hemato-Centric Life Forum meetings in Seoul organized by Hemato-Centric Life Foundation.[88][89][90]

Ahae[edit]

Ahae (아해), which means "child" in old Korean language, was a nickname used in reference to Yoo in correspondence on an Evangelical Baptist Church website EBC World (www.ebcworld.org).[14] According to his son, Yoo began using it in the early 1990s.[91] One observer in Korea Times noted that the name derives its analogous sound from Yahweh, the Jewish name for God.[92] Through his PR companies Ahae Press, Inc. in New York, Ahae Press France in Paris, and Ahae Press Ltd. UK in London, Yoo has exhibited and marketed himself as the photographer who goes by the name Ahae.[4][81] Yoo was unknown as a photographer before 2011.[93][94][95][96]

The project titled Through My Window began in early spring 2009 and continued for 4 years, during which time Yoo allegedly took about 2.7 million photographs, all through one window, which equates to a rate of roughly one photo every 60 seconds. The collection mainly consists of natural scenes shot through the window of Yoo's own studio. The location is the rural commune belonging to the Evangelical Baptist Church called "Geumsuwon" (금수원) east ofAnseong south of Seoul, where Yoo lives.[97][98]

Yoo first exhibited Through My Window in the Vanderbilt Hall of Grand Central Terminal, New York City, in April 2011; co-produced by daughter Yoo Som-na's company Moreal Design, it was organized by Hemato-Centric Life Institute,[99] and sponsored by Highland Springs Resort[100] and Bear Family Green Club.[101][102][103] His exhibition Through My Window: Vibrancy and Serenity was on display on the same location in October 2011.[104][105] Yoo did not attend the exhibition that was unveiled by his second son, Yoo Hyuk-kee, known outside South Korea as Keith H. Yoo.[106] Keith, as CEO of Ahae Press,curated his father's exhibitions.[107][108][109][110]

As a travelling exhibition, Through My Window was then on display in Europe at the National Gallery in Prague,[111] Clarence House Gardens, Lancaster House, and Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew in London,[112][113] Vremena Goda Galleries in Moscow,[107][114] Museo Nazionale Alinari della Fotografia in Florence,[115][116] and in Magazzini del Sale, Venice.[117]

"Ahae" etched in stone at the Louvre in Paris, as one of its patrons.[118][119][120]

From June to August 2012, Through My Window (De ma fenêtre) was displayed in a 12,000 square feet (1,100 m2), four-story bespoke exhibition pavilion erected in the Tuileries Garden, that is administratively attached to The Louvre, in Paris.[121][122][123] English film composer Ilan Eshkeri was commissioned to write a twelve-part tone poem. Pre-recorded in Abbey Road Studios by the London Metropolitan Orchestra the 46 minutes composition played alongside the exhibition, and was later released on Blu-ray Disc.[124][125][126][127] For the gala dinner in the exhibition pavilion on 25 June 2012 Keith H. Yoo had commissioned British composer Michael Nyman to write a 26 minutes long piano quintet in four movements titled Through the Only Window. The work was subsequently recorded by Nyman Quintet in the Abbey Road Studios, and released on Nyman's record label.[128][129][130] Hervé Barbaret, deputy to former director of The Louvre Henri Loyrette, disclosed to L'Express in 2014 that "The Louvre did not pay a penny to organize this event. The artist paid the production entirely and paid a little more than 500,000 (~US$700.000, ~₩700 million) to exhibit himself in the Tuileries".[131] Ahae further donated €1.1 million (~US$1.5 million, ~₩1.5 billion) to The Louvre.[132][133][134][135]

French magazine A nous Paris in its 25 June 2012 edition asked Keith H. Yoo the question: "The exhibition is a significant cost. Do you have any sponsors?" To which Keith answered: "No. We are funding everything with the money from our different companies. We are not interested in outside pressure and want to enjoy total freedom."[136]

For his second solo exhibition in France, Fenêtre sur l'extraordinaire (Window on the Extraordinary), Ahae rented the Orangerie Hall of the Palace of Versailles from 25 June to 9 September 2013.[137][138][139] To mark the end of the exhibition, Michael Nyman was again commissioned, and wrote a 32 minutes long symphony in four movements for the occasion, Symphony No. 6 "AHAE", representing the four seasons in nature as depicted by Ahae. French composer Nicolas Bacri was commissioned to write a 29 minutes long symphonic piece, his opus 130 titled "Ahae's Day (Four Images for Orchestra)". TheLondon Symphony Orchestra was hired to premiere both pieces at L'Opéra of the Palace of Versailles in Paris on 8 September 2013.[140] Both pieces have been recorded for a planned future release.[141][142][143] Ahae was the sole patron of the Bosquet du Théâtre d'Eau (Water Theatre Grove) (fr) currently being recreated with sculptures by Jean-Michel Othoniel in the area of the Gardens of Versailles, donating €1.4 million (~US$1.9 million, ~₩1.9 billion).[132][144][145][146] Catherine Pégard, head of the Public Establishment of the Palace, Museum and National Estate of Versailles who administer the Palace of Versailles, disclosed that the exhibition was on a sponsorship basis, saying "The artist himself wanted to rent the Orangerie. But we never communicate the numbers." Spurred by investigative reporting initially published by Bernard Hasquenoph, French Le Monde and British The Times wrote that Ahae gave €5 million (~US$6.8 million, ~₩6.9 billion) to Versailles.[147][148][149][150][151][152]

Financial Times in its review of the Versailles exhibition wrote:

The scene that is the subject of Ahae's images looks, on the face of it, pretty unremarkable. A couple of murky ponds sit in a field which backs on to a fairly uninteresting looking wood. But such is the focus of Ahae's gaze that the viewer comes to know the fauna on the patch – from the fierce great tits who stare defiantly into the camera to the thuggish magpies and the beleaguered egrets and herons who bow to assaults by their neighbours like ageing professors hounded by skinheads.

— Catherine Milner, The Extraordinary within the Ordinary, Versailles – review, Financial Times[108]

The Economist wrote:

At first glance, the view from Ahae's window appears unimpressive. Yet these images reward patience. Ahae's forensic attention to detail reveals the stoicism, dignity and minor dramas of the animals going about their daily business, and raises these pictures to the realm of poetry.

— C.M., Nature photography in Versailles: Seoulful visions, The Economist[153]

Parisian newspapers Le Monde and Libération, several French art magazines, as well as Korean expatriates in France in an open letter on 12 June to FrenchMinister of Culture Aurélie Filippetti, Catherine Pégard, president of the Château de Versailles, Henri Loyrette, ex-president of the Louvre and co-president of the French-Korean Year, and Bruno Ory-Lavollé, director of the Forest Festival in Compiègne, have raised their concerns over French cultural institutions accepting self-financed exhibitions in return for donations.[96][120][131][149][154][155][156][157][158][159] La Croix on 3 July wrote that French Foreign MinisterLaurent Fabius would write to Versailles to demand the termination of the Ahae sponsorship there.[160][161]

Ahae, through his company Ahae Press, was a patron of the Forest Festival, a classical music festival in the forests of Compiègne, northern France. His photographs were to be projected during a gala concert at Théâtre Impérial de Compiègne on 4 July 2014. The sponsorship commitment was €10,000 (~US$13,640, ~₩13.9 million).[162][163][164] Following the open letter on 12 June from Korean expatriates in France to, among others, Minister of Culture Aurélie Filippetti and the director of the Forest Festival, and subsequent talks between the festival and the Ministry of Culture, Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius on 30 June gave written notice to the festival suggesting the projection should be renounced "out of sensitivity and respect for the Korean people mourning [following the sinking of Sewol], in particular the families of the young victims, and in the interest of the Festival and of France"; the projection and the sponsorship was cancelled on 2 July.[120][160][161][165][166][167][168][169][170][171][172]

An Ahae exhibition produced by Ahae Press titled Les échos du temps de près et de loin (Echos of Time: Far and Near) for the opening season of the newPhilharmonie de Paris was scheduled for 5 May to 28 September 2015, and a concert sponsored by Ahae Press on 15 June 2015 in Philharmonie de Paris featuring Nyman's Symphony No. 6 "Ahae" and Beethoven's Symphony No. 6 "Pastorale" was announced; both have been cancelled.[173][174]

French newspaper La Croix in a comment to the sinking of the MV Sewol wrote:

This businessman with a murky past had used his fortune to exhibit at The Louvre. ... The crew [of the Sewol] was mainly made up of followers of the church of Yoo; temporary, often renewed and who were unfamiliar with their ship. The investigation also revealed that the owner had only spent 541,000 won ($521; €400) on crew training, including evacuation drills for its employees in 2013. Its wealthy owner had other priorities ... he used his fortune to organize worldwide exhibitions of his landscape photographs.

— Frédéric Ojardias, Corée, le scandaleux propriétaire du ferry naufragé, La Croix[175][176]

France Info commented:

In the Tuileries as at Versailles Ahae himself had financed his own exhibitions. ... In 2013, the company spent $500 in costs for training their crews, an amount that pales in comparison to the wealth of the owner of the shipping company. However, one of the main causes of the tragedy was precisely the total lack of preparation of the crew in case of disaster.

— Pierrick de Morel, Corée du Sud : qui est Yoo Byung-Eun, propriétaire du ferry naufragé ?, France Info[177]

Gallery

The sinking of the Sewol[edit]

Sewol sinking

The ferry Sewol capsized and sank on 16 April 2014. It was carrying 476 people, mostly secondary school students fromDanwon High School who were travelling from Incheon towards Jeju.[178] The sinking resulted in 304 deaths, and is the worstferry disaster in South Korea since 14 December 1970, when the sinking of the ferry Namyoung cost 326 people out of 338 their lives.[179][180][181] Sewol was operated by the company Chonghaejin Marine.

Ownership[edit]

Before his death, Yoo had widely been described as "the owner of" or "the de facto owner of" the sunken ferry Sewol, and was former chairman of Chonghaejin Marine.[14][33] Son Byong-ki, Yoo's lawyer, stated on 25 April that Yoo "has no financial ties to Chonghaejin or its subsidiaries."[182] A press release from Yoo's U.S. publicist, Ahae Press Inc., stated that "[Mr. Yoo] does not own any shares, direct or indirect, of Chonghaejin."[4] Financial filings confirmed that Yoo had no stake in the shipping company.[14]

Yoo was the head of the family who partially own Chonghaejin Marine, and is believed to have exercised influence through a web of company cross-shareholdings.[5][62][183] His two sons, Yoo Dae-kyun (유대균; born c. 1970), and second son Yoo Hyuk-kee, are controlling the shipping firm through a majority stake in the investment vehicle I-One-I Holdings as well as 13 unlisted affiliates which through a tangled web of ownership structure own each other, a structure prosecutors describe as pyramid-like, and ultimately is controlled by individuals― Yoo's two sons and seven of his friends.[17][56][66][184][185]Chung Sun-seop, editor of Chaebul.com, a website that analyses South Korea's chaebol business groups, said that "This kind of shadow management through his children or close aides is not uncommon among chaebol companies."[186]

On 23 April investigators of the Incheon District Prosecutors' Office raided the head office of Chonghaejin Marine, and some 20 offices of its affiliates, as well as the office of the Evangelical Baptist Church in Yongsan, central Seoul. Prosecutors suspected that funds from members of the religious group had been used in business operations of Chonghaejin Marine and Yoo Byung-eun.[42][187] The prosecution found more than 100 bogus companies, many of them set up and operated by followers of a Yoo's religious group, had paid Yoo and his two sons at least ₩100 billion (~US$97.1 million) for their "consulting services," and had purchased photos taken by Yoo.[188] Yoo's religious group denied cross-border transactions with affiliates of the ferry operator.[189] The Prosecution secured video footage of a lecture Yoo delivered to the sect's believers in April 2010, in which Yoo admitted to have registered properties under the names of other persons.[190]

A lawyer representing Yoo Dae-kyun and Yoo Hyuk-kee said on 22 April that "If there is any legal responsibility, the owners are willing to offer their wealth and assets to help compensate the victims."[176] On 24 April the two sons apologised in a written statement saying: "We will humbly accept all responsibility for this accident and we will not hesitate to do anything to console the pain of victims and grieving families even a little bit."[191]

Leadership[edit]

Michael Ham, managing director of Ahae Press and co-director of Evangelical Media Group, in a press release 25 April 2014 said: "Mr. Yoo does not have any involvement in the management or day-to-day operations of Chonghaejin Marine Co. ... I know that he has been spending every single day of the past four to five years focusing on his photography work."[4][132][192] Yoo's lawyer said that Yoo has been not been involved in corporate management since Semo went bankrupt in 1997.[188]

Investigators have obtained evidence indicating Yoo as the de facto leader of the company. One piece of evidence is a detailed list of all the company's staff prepared on 15 April 2014, a day before the sinking of the MV Sewol, which named Yoo as chairman of Chonghaejin Marine with employee number A99001, or employee No. 1 at the company, which was established in 1999.[193] They also discovered a pay stub that records a payment of ₩15 million (~US$14,700) monthly over more than a year.[194][195] They have also obtained testimony from others that Yoo was directly involved in managing the ferry operator.[193]

Sewol was remodeled between October 2012 and February 2013 to increase the number of passenger cabins and add a fifth floor, mainly used as anexhibition hall for photographs by Yoo (Ahae). The employee of Chonghaejin who was in charge of the refitting testified that he carried out the expansion under the direction of Yoo.[195]

Investigators found that Yoo has glossed over critical problems with the stability of the refurbished vessel. According to the prosecution, the regular captain of the Sewol testified that he had warned Chonghaejin Marine of serious stability problems with the vessel,[196] and Kim Han-shik, the chief of Chonghaejin Marine notified Yoo of the risks of overloading it with freight in January 2014. Kim reportedly pointed out the ferry's weakened ability to recover left-and-right balance when tilted due to the extension in the number of cabins, and advised Yoo to sell off the ferry.[197] Yoo allegedly told them to keep running Sewol as usual and put up for sale both the sister ship Ohamana and Sewol in March.[176][198][199][200]

On 20 May it was confirmed that the overloading and remodeling of the ship compromised its ability to maintain stability during the time of the accident.[195]

Allegations and charges[edit]

Based on the evidence, prosecutors concluded that Yoo is the one who directs operation and execution of business, and plan to hold Yoo vicariously liablefor the acts of the operator's crew members. Accordingly, the prosecution is poised to cite "negligent homicide" in its coming application of criminal law against Yoo.[201][202]

Yoo is charged with embezzlement, breach of trust and tax evasion.[6] He is suspected of embezzling ₩128.9 billion (~US$125.8 million) from his companies, including ₩44.6 billion (~US$43.5 million) transferred overseas illegally, as part of a scheme to sell his nature photographs to his companies for tens of millions of won. He also owes an estimated ₩10.1 billion (~US$9.8 million) in taxes for the photos sold.[203] Prosecutors also found evidence that Yoo's family set up several paper companies with no consultants, which then collected some ₩20 billion (~US$19 million) in consulting fees from companies related to Semo Group over the last few years.[204][205] They are also looking into circumstantial evidence that Yoo's family has claimed commission fees of tens of billions of won from the related companies for the use of trademark rights for names like Sewol.[206]

On 30 June, the Prosecution announced its intention to indict Yoo, irrespective of whether or not he is apprehended, citing "homicide by negligence" in the charges.[207]

Investigation[edit]

Yoo has made no known public appearances since the Sewol sank.[208][209] The Ministry of Justice banned within the first week of the investigation Yoo, his eldest son Yoo Dae-kyun, and more than 60 other employees in various companies owned by Yoo or his sons from leaving South Korea.[66][67][176]

Son Byeong-gi, a lawyer representing both Yoo, Chonghaejin Marine, and I-One-I Holdings, said on 22 April that "If there is any legal responsibility, the owners are willing to offer their wealth and assets to help compensate the victims."[176]

The Park Geun-hye administration pledged to exercise the right to indemnity against Yoo and Chonghaejin Marine as soon as the state compensates victims' families. The combined damages from the sinking of the Sewol are estimated to reach ₩2 trillion (~US$1.9 billion).[210][211][212]

The accumulated value of the assets owned by Yoo and his family is estimated at over ₩240 billion (~US$235 million).[56][213][214] It includes an estimated ₩129.1 billion (~US$126.7 million) held by Yoo himself, ₩49.2 billion (~US$48.3 million) by eldest daughter Yoo Som-na, ₩5.6 billion (~US$5.5 million) by eldest son Yoo Dae-kyun, and ₩55.9 billion (~US$54.9 million) by the second son Yoo Hyuk-kee.[215]

Son Byeong-gi representing Yoo told the Chosun Ilbo on 24 April that reports that Yoo's assets total ₩240 billion were not true, but that Yoo had "voiced his willingness to donate his entire ₩10 billion (~US$9.8 million) estate due to his deep sorrow for those who lost their lives aboard the Sewol."[182] A prosecution official investigating Yoo's holdings said there was a "huge gap" between what the former chairman claimed he was worth and what investigators had found out so far. Son claimed on 25 April that he had been misunderstood and by ₩10 billion had meant "tens of billions" of won, and that Yoo was willing to donate his "entire" assets, whatever their size.[216] Son later resigned as lawyer for the family on 15 May.[217]

A financier of the Evangelical Baptist Church of Korea was summoned for questioning on 24 April to trace deals between the sect and companies run by Yoo and his two sons.[19][218] Transcripts of land registers showed that four days later Yoo and his family signed over some 24 properties worth around ₩27 billion (~US$26 million) to the Evangelical Baptist Church of Korea on 28 and 29 April.[219]

Wanted poster, June 2014.

On 13 May, the Incheon District Prosecutors' Office summoned Yoo to appear for questioning by 16 May,[220] but he failed to heed the call,[98][221] and was presumed hiding in the church compound Geumsuwon south of Seoul.[222] All of Yoo's children and a number of key suspects had ignored the summons.[223] Yoo failed to appear at a court hearing on 20 May.[210] On 22 May the Incheon District Court issued an arrest warrant and Korean authorities offered a 50 million (US$48,800) reward for information leading to the arrest of Yoo.[6][7] On 25 May the reward was raised tenfold to ₩500 million (US$488,000).[8][9]

Prosecutors warned on 24 May that anyone who helps Yoo in hiding faces up to three years in prison.[224] Four members of Yoo's religious group were arrested 25 May for assisting Yoo to escape detection by the police.[225][226]On 26 May Yoo's religious group, in an apparent move to confuse investigators, said that Yoo might have returned early in the morning to Geumsuwon, the church commune in Anseong, Gyeonggi Province.[225] Geumsuwon is known as the main residence of Yoo.[227] A spokesperson for the sect later announced that Yoo had not returned, further saying, "We hope Yoo doesn't get arrested. A 100,000 followers will protect Yoo. Even if the entire congregation of 100,000 believers is arrested, we won't hand him over."[225][228] Lee Jae-ok, another member of Yoo's religious group, chairman of Yoo's Hemato-Centric Life Foundation,[98] and one of Yoo's close aides, was arrested on 26 May on charges of planning Yoo's life as a fugitive and helping him evade detection for weeks.[229][230]

President Park Geun-hye during a Cabinet meeting on 27 May ordered a quick arrest of the fugitive Yoo saying he and his family "is ridiculing the law and causing indignation among the people."[231] Beginning 27 May, police doubled the number of officers deployed for the search for Yoo from 24,000 to almost 50,000.[232]

Yoo Som-na[edit]

Yoo's eldest daughter, Yoo Som-na (유섬나; born 1966), was summoned for questioning multiple times by the Prosecution, but evaded the Office's investigation.[233][234] She heads the interior design and consulting firm Moreal Design with offices on New York's Park Avenue and in Seoul,[235] which has done design work for many of Semo's affiliates, Debauve & Gallais, Hemato-Centric Life Institute, and NaeClear, and has sponsored Yoo's photographic exhibitions.[236] On 9 May 2014, police raided the firm's office in southern Seoul on suspicion it had been involved in forming the family's slush funds and managing them in overseas accounts.[237][238] On 11 May, the authorities issued an arrest warrant for Som-na after she failed to appear for questioning.[98][217][239] Som-na has been staying in France since February 2013 on a temporary residence visa.[149][240] She is accused of embezzling ₩8 billion (US$7.8 million) from her affiliates including Dapanda since 2003 while working as the head of Moreal Design in Seoul.[229][241]

On 23 May an Interpol Red Notice was issued, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs ordered Som-na to surrender her passport,[242] while the Ministry of Justicedispatched local investigators to France to discuss potential extradition.[224] French law enforcement authorities arrested Som-na under the international arrest warrant on 27 May in her Paris apartment, reportedly worth 2.5 billion (US$2.44 million), near Champs-Élysées.[243][244] The Ministry of Justice said that it will repatriate Som-na following a repatriation trial in France.[245] She appeared before a judge on 28 May,[246] who decided against releasing her on bail.[247] Through her French lawyer, Patrick Maisonneuve, Som-na has said she is innocent of the charges brought against her.[248] An appeal court on 11 June rejected Som-na's request for bail citing flight risk.[249] A renewed request to be released pending the extradition decision 17 September was rejected by a Paris judge on 9 July.[250][251] She is being held at the Fresnes Prison and is projected to bring her extradition case to the French Supreme Court, or even to judicial authorities of the European Union, which could delay her repatriation up to one year.[252][253][254]

Eight aides[edit]

During the month of May, numerous persons were questioned and arrested, among them eight people who held top positions at subsidiary companies in Yoo's sphere of influence.

  • Song Kook-bin (송국빈; born c. 1952) was summoned for questioning on 30 April. He is CEO of Chonghaejin affiliate Dapanda, a direct-sales company distributing health supplements and cosmetics, and previously served as an CEO of I-One-I Holdings. Yoo's first son, Dae-kyun, is the biggest shareholders of Dapanda. Dapanda holds a 16.2 percent stake in Chonhaeji, the largest shareholder of Chonghaejin Marine, the operator of the ferrySewol.[255][256][257][258] Song was subsequently arrested, detained, and on 21 May indicted on charges of embezzling company funds and channeling the money to Yoo and his family, including suspicions of purchasing photographs taken by Yoo for as much as ₩50 million (~US$60,000) each, dealing significant damages to the company.[17][205][259][260]
  • Lee Jae-young (이재영; born c. 1952), Ahae Corp CEO, was arrested on 9 May, on charges of breach of trust and facilitating financial irregularities by buying millions of dollars worth of Yoo's photos at prices far higher than market values, thus funding his photography career.[261][262]
  • Lee Gang-se (이강세; born c. 1941), former Ahae Corp CEO, was questioned in early May over suspicions of aiding Yoo in the establishment of slush funds. Lee admitted that his former company Ahae Corp had paid bogus consultation fees to a shell company operated by Yoo, but said these actions were company custom and had taken place before he became CEO.[259][260][261] Lee allegedly received orders to invest Ahae Corp money in the firm Ahae Press France, a company established to publish Yoo's photographs.[263] Lee was arrested on 23 May and charged for extracting more than ₩1 billion (~US$1 million) from Ahae Corp through an illegal lending scheme.[264][265]
  • Park Seung-il (박승일; born c. 1959), auditor of I-One-I Holdings and Yoo's close aid was indicted on 23 May on charges of embezzling ₩12.6 billion (~US$12.4 million) in company money.[266][267]
  • Byeon Ki-choon (변기춘; born 1972), CEO of both Semo's shipbuilding unit Chonhaiji and of I-One-I Holdings, and Go Chang-hwan (고창환; bornc. 1942), the CEO of Semo, were in early May suspected of causing tens of billions of won (tens of millions of dollars) in losses to their companies by paying large sums of company funds to purchase photographs by Yoo at excessively high prices and for consulting services from a paper company owned by Yoo's family.[257][261][268] They were on 28 May indicted on charges of inflicting a total of ₩30.1 billion (~US$29.7 million) worth of losses on their firms to help Yoo's family create slush funds.[269]
  • Kim Dong-hwan (김동환; born c. 1964), auditor of Dapanda and senior executive at I-One-I Holdings, was arrested in mid May, and indicted on embezzlement charges on 29 May.[270][271]
  • Oh Kyung-seok (오경석; born c. 1961), CEO of Hemato-Centric Life Institute and in charge of selling Yoo's photography works, was indicted on embezzlement charges on 31 May.[270][272]

The criminal trial of the eight defendants started at Incheon District Court on 16 June, the eight being accused of embezzlement, breach-of-duty and other instances of corruption, with prosecutors alleging that the defendants inflicted between ₩3 billion (~US$2.94 million) and ₩21 billion (~US$20.58 million) worth of losses on their firms to help Yoo's family create slush funds. Three of the defendants denied their charges, the others admitted to irregular intragroup trading, saying that they acted on the orders of Yoo's eldest son, Dae-kyun, and Yoo's close aide Kim Phil-bae, who both reportedly have fled to the United States. Next court meeting is on 9 July.[265][273][274][275][276][277]

Kwon Oh-kyun[edit]

Yoo's brother-in-law, Kwon Oh-kyun (권오균; born c. 1950), the younger brother to Yoo's wife, Kwon Yun-ja, was arrested at his home in southern Seoul on charges of negligence on 6 June. Kwon, a key leader of the Salvation Sect, is CEO of the construction firm Trigon Korea, a core affiliate of Chonghaejin Marine, and suspected of embezzling company funds to illicitly transfer to Yoo and Yoo's children.[278][279][280] On 8 June, a court warrent was issued todetain Kwon, inhibiting he fled the country or destroed evidence.[281][282][283] Kwon became the the first relative of Yoo to be indicted on 24 June. He is accused of funneling funds of nearly ₩29 billion (~US$28,4 million) into his business after taking out loans with assets of the Evangelical Baptist Church as collateral in 2010, according to prosecutors.[284][285]

Yoo Byung-il[edit]

Yoo's older brother, Yoo Byung-il (유병일; born c. 1939), was the first member of Yoo's family who, on 11 May, appeared for questioning. Byung-il was the managing director of the religious facility called Geumsuwon. Prosecutors said they believed that Byung-il had received consultation fees of ₩2.5 million (~US$2,400) from Chonghaejin Marine each month, and that they had testimonies that he had illegally intervened in the company's management.[239][286]Byung-il was arrested one month later on 13 June, near Geumsuwon.[287][288][289] The prosecution team requested and was granted a pretrial detention warrant for Byung-il on 16 June.[273][290] On 2 July Byung-il was indicted on embezzlement charges suspected of having received a combined ₩13 million (~US$129,000) from Chonghaejin Marine as consulting fees between June 2010 and April 2014.[291]

Shin Myung-hee[edit]

Shin Myung-hee (신명희; born c. 1950), a member of the Evangelical Baptist Church called "Mother Shin" by devotees of the sect, had been wanted by law enforcement authorities under suspicion of masterminding Yoo's escape, and on 13 June turned herself in to authorities in Suwon, Gyeonggi. Shin was detained and in July indicted on charges of playing a major role in helping Yoo evade capture.[291][292][293]

Oh Gabriel[edit]

An unnamed person acting for Yoo contacted the Embassy of France in Seoul in late May and asked about the possibility of Yoo seeking political asylum.[294] The embassy declined the request due to Yoo's status as a criminal suspect.[295][296][297][298] Local media outlets said Yoo's middleman also made asylum enquiries at the embassies of the Philippines, the Czech Republic, and Canada.[299][300]

Yoo's eldest brother-in-law, Oh Gabriel (오갑렬; born c. 1955), married to Yoo's younger sister, Yoo Gyeong-hee (유경희; born c. 1958), was arrested with his wife on 19 June, allegedly for aiding Yoo's escape.[301] The arrest came following testimony provided by two key adherents of the Evangelical Baptist Church that were arrested earlier in June, saying Oh drove Yoo out of the religious group's commune, Geumsuwon, on 23 April after police surrounded the compound.[302] Oh, who served as the Korean ambassador to the Czech Republic from January 2010 through June 2013,[294][299] reportedly played a significant role in garnering support for Yoo's photo exhibitions in France.[303] Oh is currently under review by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs's disciplinary committee for allegations that he abused his authority to help Yoo hold a photo exhibition in France and other European countries.[294] The Prosecution suspect that Oh contacted the French Embassy on behalf of Yoo.[303] When questioned, Oh testified that Yoo's family and followers funded and gave him information about the authorities' movements.[302][304] Oh and his wife were released on 26 June reportedly with the expressed willingness to actively cooperate with the investigation and mediate the surrender of Yoo,[305] and because under Korean criminal law family members to a fugitive cannot be punished for hiding or aiding the suspect.[306][307]

Kwon Yun-ja[edit]

Yoo's wife, Kwon Yun-ja (권윤자; born c. 1942), was put on the nation's most wanted list in June. She has been the CEO of a door-to-door sales company, Dalgubeol (달구벌), in the southern city of Daegu.[278][308] Kwon was detained in an apartment in Bundang, Gyeonggi Province on 21 June and taken in for questioning on charges of embezzling funds from the Evangelical Baptist Church and her company, reportedly amounting to more than ₩1 billion (US$979,850) that had been handed over to her husband and her son to expand their business.[309][310][311][312] In order to keep her in custody, the prosecution asked on 23 June the Incheon District Court to issue an arrest warrant,[313][314] which was granted on 24 June.[315] On 14 July prosecutors filed embezzlement charges against Kwon.[316]

Yoo Byung-ho[edit]

Yoo's younger brother, Yoo Byung-ho (유병호; born c. 1942), father-in-law of singer Park Jin-young, was arrested at his residence in Daegu on 22 June.[317][318] The Court issued a custody warrant on 24 June. Byung-ho is suspected of embezzlement, totaling at least ₩1 billion (~US$1 million), from Chonghaejin Marine's sister firms, and to have borrowed ₩3 billion (~US$2.8 million) from one of the family affiliates, and allegedly made members of the religious group pay back ₩1.5 billion (~US$1.4 million) on his behalf while the affiliate suffered losses of ₩1.5 billion (~US$1.4 million).[284][315][319][320]

Lee Seok-hwan[edit]

On 25 June Lee Seok-hwan (이석환; born c. 1949), considered Yoo's "right-hand man," was arrested in a parking lot in Suwon, south of Seoul, after avoiding a manhunt for weeks. An influential member of the Evangelical Baptist Church, Lee is suspected of helping Yoo avoid arrest. A court-issued warrant on Lee was sought on 27 June.[305][321][322][323]

Ongoing investigation[edit]

In mid June 2014, Chonhaiji Co. Ltd., a ship block maker controlled by Yoo's sons, and the major shareholder of Chonghaejin Marine Company with 39.4%, lodged its application for receivership at the Changwon District Court. Chonhaiji had ₩34.8 billion (~US$34.19 million) in outstanding debt to main creditorKorea Development Bank.[324][325]

On 27 June the Government of South Korea had calculated the costs in connection with the sinking of the ferry Sewol to ₩403.1 billion (~US$397.8 million), and lodged a claim to any properties held directly or by proxy by Yoo and Chonghaejin Marine at the Seoul Central District Court to cover compensation payments for the victims.[326][327][328] The Court on 4 July ordered the sequestration of assets owned by Yoo Byung-eun, four officials of Chonghaejin Marine, and eight crew members aboard Sewol.[329]

Yoo while on the run purchased around 60,000 square metres (650,000 sq ft) of land near a property in South Jeolla Province where he sought refuge in May, according to prosecutors. He paid ₩250 million (~US$247,000) and registered it under the names of the married couple, members of his religious group, who run a rest stop and restaurant near Suncheon and are suspected of aiding Yoo's escape from the law. The Incheon District Court on 2 July ordered in its third decision to temporarily seize assets the confiscation of an additional ₩10.2 billion (~US$10 million) worth of assets owned by Yoo and his family, including the newly acquired property as well as 10 stores in Gangnam District, Seoul, valued at ₩8.5 billion (~US$8.4 million), an apartment owned by Yoo's son Hyuk-kee valued at ₩1.5 billion (~US$1.48 million), and cameras confiscated from a restaurant run by his other son Dae-kyun valued at ₩22 million (~US$21,700).[329][330][331][332][333]

Yoo Dae-kyun

Yoo's first son, Yoo Dae-kyun, was involved in the day-to-day operations of Chonghaejin Marine.[334] He was the biggest shareholder of four affiliates of the family businesses including the holding company of the operator of Sewol, I-One-I Holdings.[237] Prosecutors found evidence proving that Dae-kyun received monthly wages from affiliates that he did not own shares of.[239] He is suspected of collecting billions of won in "consulting fees" from the firms and creating a slush fund. Dae-gyun also registered the name "Ohamana" for a sister ferry of the Sewol.[270] Dae-gyun is wanted for a string of corruption charges and irregularities that are believed to have contributed to the sinking of the Sewol.[269]

Dae-kyun bought an airplane ticket to France and was reportedly spotted at Incheon International Airport on 19 April, but didn't board the plane.[299][334] He was supposed to appear for questioning at the Incheon District Prosecutors' Office, but failed to show up.[335] Prosecutors obtained an arrest warrant for Dae-kyun on 13 May, but investigators were unable to find him.[336] He was placed on the most-wanted list amid fears that he would flee the country.[221][222] The Court approved on 20 May a proposal by the Prosecution and the National Tax Service to place real estate assets worth ₩20 billion (~US$19 million) under confiscation. Among the properties was land in the Seocho District and Gangnam District of southern Seoul and two business offices in Gangnam-gu. All properties had been registered in the name of Yoo Dae-kyun.[210][211] On 22 May the Korean authorities labeled Yoo Byung-eun and Yoo Dae-kyun as fugitives,[337] and initially offered a ₩50 million (~US$48,800) reward for Yoo and a ₩30 million (~US$29,300) reward for Dae-kyun for information leading to their arrest.[6][7] On 25 May the rewards were raised to ₩500 million (~US$488,000) for the older Yoo and to ₩100 million (~US$97,600) for the son,[338] the largest amount ever offered by an investigative authority as a reward in South Korea.[339]

Yoo Hyuk-kee

Yoo's second son, Yoo Hyuk-kee, reportedly was involved in the day-to-day managing of Chonghaejin Marine.[208] Hyuk-kee, apart from his stake in I-One-I Holdings, owns some 10 percent stake in Ahae Corp., a paint manufacturing company, and a stake in Ahae Press Corp.[52] As CEO of Ahae Press Inc. in New York, Ahae Press France in Paris, and Ahae Press Ltd. UK in London, he has built up his fathers image as a talented photographer, and has curated his exhibitions.[107][108][133][340] Hyuk-kee had been summoned for questioning by 8 May, but ignored the summonses.[205][270][335] On 23 May an Interpol Red Notice was issued.[242] He is suspected of helping his father establish a slush fund through paper companies.[205][341]

Hyuk-kee, who is known outside Korea as Keith H. Yoo, is based in the U.S. and, according to sources, either has permanent residence status or holds aU.S. citizenship.[188] He left South Korea for the U.S. shortly after the sinking of the Sewol on 16 April,[342] and attempted to make his way to France but didn't get on his booked flight.[299] Hyuk-kee and his wife allegedly own at least three apartments on Manhattan and near the Arc de Triomphe in Paris estimated to be worth around US$6.2 million (~₩6.3 billion) altogether. The prosecutors have asked the United States Department of Homeland Security'sInvestigations Directorate to track down real estate and deposits under the names of the siblings or affiliates of the family business.[240][266]

Personal life[edit]

Yoo was known, due to his reclusiveness, as "the millionaire with no face."[5][191] He married Kwon Yun-ja (Hangul: 권윤자; RR: Gwo Nyun-ja; born c. 1942), the daughter of Kwon Shin-chan, in 1966.[343] He had four children with her:[242][344] daughter Yoo Som-na (Hangul: 유섬나; RR: Yu Seom-na; born 1966), also known as Ennette Yoo,[345] daughter Yoo Sang-na (Hangul: 유상나; RR: Yu Sang-na; born c. 1968),[346][347] son Yoo Dae-kyun (Hangul: 유대균; RR:Yu Dae-gyun; born c. 1970), and second son Yoo Hyuk-kee (Hangul: 유혁기; RR: Yu hyuk-ki; born 1972), also known as Keith H. Yoo.[133][229]

Reported death[edit]

South Korean police reported in July 2014 that a body found in June in a field about 185 miles south of Seoul is believed to be Yoo's. The body was wearing a winter sweater and was "seriously decomposed." Preliminary DNA analysis indicates a "fair match".[10] The death was later confirmed.[348]

Bibliography[edit]

See also[edit]

  • Jung Myung-seok - South Korean religious leader who spent 8 years on the run before being arrested

References[edit]

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  21. Jump up^ "삼우(三友)트레이딩 이사 7명으로 출범 | Daum 미디어다음" (in Korean). Media.daum.net. Yonhap. 25 July 1991. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  22. Jump up^ 이서현 (24 April 2014). "세모 부도뒤 수천억대 그룹 재건... 권력비호-비리 정조준 : 뉴스 : 동아닷컴". The Dong-a Ilbo (in Korean). Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  23. Jump up^ "<세월호참사> 유병언, 구원파 신도 자금으로 사업 시작 | 연합뉴스" (in Korean). Yonhapnews.co.kr. Yonhap. 24 April 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  24. Jump up^ "Welcome to Semo!". Semo.co.kr. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
  25. Jump up^ Korean Trade Directory. Korean Traders Association. 1988. p. 1227.
  26. Jump up^ "세월호 침몰, 유병언 계열사 임원 상당수 '구원파'" (in Korean). Huffingtonpost.kr. 23 April 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  27. Jump up^ J Carr; S. M. A. Barrow; Whiteside R (1989). Major Companies of the Far East. Graham & Trotman. p. 362.
  28. Jump up^ "SKorea ferry disaster suspect's daughter arrested in Paris". Worldbulletin.net. Worldbulletin News. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  29. ^ Jump up to:a b Hyung, Jin-kim (26 May 2014). "South Korea offers $500,000 reward for tips about missing billionaire Sewol ferry owner Yoo Byung-eun". National Post. Associated Press. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  30. Jump up^ Major Companies of the Far East 1989-1990: East Asia. Graham & Trotman. 1 August 1989. p. 389.
  31. Jump up^ Liang Yun; Alan Bliault (26 May 2000). Theory & Design of Air Cushion Craft. Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 40–. ISBN 978-0-08-051906-7.
  32. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Kim, Miyoung (22 April 2014). "Company that owned ill-fated South Korea ferry has chequered past". Reuters. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  33. ^ Jump up to:a b Kim, Jung-yoon (19 April 2014). "Offices of Sewol owner searched".Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  34. Jump up^ Asia Magazine 28. Asia Magazines, Ltd. January 1990. p. 221. "Then, rolling through the middle of the city is that metallic blue, heaving cummerbund around its waist, the Han River. ... Some, like Semo Cruises, start at the main Olympic stadium, where, in the soft whisper of the winter wind amid an empty ..."
  35. Jump up^ "33 Bodies Found in Attic After Apparent Murder-Suicide Pact". Apnewsarchive.com. 29 August 1987. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  36. Jump up^ Asiaweek. Asiaweek Limited. September 1987. "...when thirteen employees of Park's Odaeyang Trading Co. were arrested for assaulting three creditors who demanded repayment of more than $600,000. When police brought Park in for questioning about $13.7 million in unpaid loans, she fell ill and was taken to hospital."
  37. Jump up^ Foster-Carter, Aidan (22 May 2014). "The many masks of Yoo Byung-eun". Asia Times. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  38. Jump up^ Per Liljas (24 April 2014). "Korean Ferry Disaster: Millionaire ‘Sewol’ Owner Yoo Byung-eun Probed". Time. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  39. Jump up^ "32 People Found Dead in South Korean Plant – New York Times". The New York Times (South Korea; Yongin (South Korea)). Associated Press. 30 August 1987. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  40. Jump up^ Korea Annual. Hapdong News Agency. 1988. p. 53. "The body of Park Sun-ja, head of Odaeyang Trading Co. and 32 other bodies were found by her husband, Lee Ki-jong, 53, on the ceiling ... brainwashed by the self-imposed woman cult leader, were persuaded to commit suicide by voluntarily taking toxicant before she took her own life."
  41. Jump up^ Hong, Gil-dong (21 May 2014). "Ferry owner's hideout raided". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  42. ^ Jump up to:a b "Prosecution looks into cult in ferry accident probe". Yonhap. 24 April 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  43. Jump up^ Jun, Kwanwoo (28 April 2014). "Patriarch of Family That Controls Ferry Operator Ends Silence". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
  44. Jump up^ "Authorities search ferry owner's offices as probe widens in South Korea". KWGN-TV. 23 April 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
  45. Jump up^ "오대양사건, 유병언 세모 회장과 어떤 관계?...檢 유병언 일가 집중 수사" [The Odaeyang Incident, What does it have to do with Yoo, the former president of Semo Co.? ... The Prosecutors are investigating]. Seoul News (in Korean). 24 April 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  46. Jump up^ Kim, Da-ye (21 May 2014). "Yoo family gets away". The Korea Times. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  47. Jump up^ 한예지 (18 April 2014). "오대양 사건 뭐길래? 청해진해운 최대 주주 유병언 전 회장 두 아들 '눈길'" (in Korean). TV Daily. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
  48. Jump up^ 임주영 (3 June 2014). "쫓고 쫓기는 검찰과 유병언...20년 전과 유사" (in Korean). Yonhap News. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
  49. Jump up^ Ko, Dong-hwan (24 April 2014). "Infidel Sewol captain and sailors devout Guwon faithfuls". The Korea Times. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  50. Jump up^ Korea Newsreview. 27-52 20. Korea Herald, Incorporated. 1991. p. 9. "The prosecution, investigating the mysterious mass deaths of Odaeyang cult followers, is seeking a former female secretary of Semo Co. President Yoo Byung-eun, hoping she could give clues ... The prosecution alleged that Song served as a medium in the transfer of Odaeyang money to Semo Co. ... Park said he had obtained evidence that Yoo, known as de facto leader of Kuwonpa or Salvation sect, was involved in the incident, and that Kuwonpa staffers had financial transactions with Odaeyang president Park Sun-ja and other officials ..."
  51. Jump up^ "시사저널". Sisapress.com. 8 August 1991. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  52. ^ Jump up to:a b "Watchdog widens probe in all affiliates of Sewol operator". Yonhap. 25 April 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  53. Jump up^ "Sunken Ferry Owner's Malpractice: Chonghaejin Marine Company under Suspicion of Offshore Tax Evasion". BusinessKorea. 23 April 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  54. Jump up^ Kim, Mi-young; Jin, Hyun-joo (22 April 2014). "Company that owned ill-fated South Korea ferry has chequered past". Reuters. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  55. Jump up^ Asiaweek. 27-51 17. Asiaweek Limited. 1991. "ARRESTED: Yoo Byung Eun, 50, leader of a South Korean religious sect and president of Semo, a trading company; on fraud charges; in Taejon Aug. 1. Known as "Jesus" to members of the Evangelical Baptist Church, also called the Kuwonpa (Salvation) sect, Yoo is accused of swindling $1.5 million from 34 people between 1982 and 1986. Last month ten sect members confessed they had killed three colleagues whom police had wanted in connection with the deaths of 32 people."
  56. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Seo, Ji-eun (26 May 2014). "Sects, money and tragedy have history in Korea". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  57. Jump up^ Korean Business Directory. Chamber of Commerce of Korea. 1990. p. 556.
  58. Jump up^ "Leave no stones unturned in investigating ferry sinking incident". The Dong-a Ilbo. 19 April 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  59. Jump up^ The Dock and Harbour Authority 75. Foxlow Publications, Limited. 1994. p. 88. "This ferry, constructed by Semo Co Ltd at a new facility near Kosung, was put into service by Semo's ferry's division on a route between Inchon and off-lying islands. This division operates a fleet of 30 ferries, of which many are hydrofoils."
  60. Jump up^ Fast Ferry International 32. High-Speed Surface Craft Limited. 1993. p. 13. "Semo launches surface effect ship A 38m surface effect ship built in Korea by Semo Co. ... and its ferry division fleet of almost 30 vessels includes eight fast ferries, eight cruise boats and seven wharf/floating restaurants on Seoul's Han River."
  61. Jump up^ Asian Shipping. 169-180. Asia Trade Journals Limited. 1993. p. 106. "Semo is a diversified group with a ferry division which owns and operates a fleet of 30 vessels, including SESs, hydrofoils, ferries, cruise boats and floating restaurants, on Seoul's Han River. Its shipbuilding division has been building specialist ..."
  62. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Lee, Ji-yoon (23 April 2014). "Scandalous owner family of Sewol". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  63. Jump up^ Fast Ferry International 43. High-Speed Surface Craft Limited. 2004.
  64. Jump up^ William H. McAnally; Ashish J. Mehta (January 2001). Coastal and Estuarine Fine Sediment Processes. Gulf Professional Publishing. pp. 294–.ISBN 978-0-444-50463-0.
  65. ^ Jump up to:a b "Find all political, government leaders protecting Yoo Byeong-eon".The Dong-a Ilbo. 12 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  66. ^ Jump up to:a b c "Chonghaejin Marine's 'real' owner hunted". The Korea Times. 22 April 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  67. ^ Jump up to:a b c Hong, Gil-dong (24 April 2014). "Travel ban slapped on ferry firm owner". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  68. Jump up^ "Courbefy : le village fantôme vendu à un artiste" [Courbefy: the ghost town sold to an artist]. Sud-Ouest (in French). Sudouest.fr. 22 May 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  69. Jump up^ "Le hameau de Courbefy (Haute-Vienne) adjugé 520.000 euros à l'artiste Ahae" [The hamlet of Courbefy (Haute-Vienne) awarded 520,000 euros to the artist Ahae]. Le Parisien (in French). Agence France-Presse. 21 May 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  70. Jump up^ "Courbefy: un hameau abandonné vendu 520 000 euros à un artiste sud-coréen, Ahae" [Courbefy: an abandoned hamlet sold for € 520000 to a South Korean artist, Ahae]. L'Express (in French). 21 May 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  71. Jump up^ Lagier, Franck (21 May 2012). "Des Américains achètent Courbefy". La Montagne (in French) (lamontagne.fr). Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  72. Jump up^ Bouchez, Yann (21 May 2012). "Le hameau de Courbefy vendu pour 520 000 euros" [The hamlet of Courbefy sold for 520,000 euros]. Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  73. Jump up^ de Mallevoüe, Delphine (23 July 2012). "Un projet "grandiose" pour le hameau vendu aux enchères" [A "grandiose" project for the sold hamlet]. Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  74. Jump up^ Meltzer, Steve (23 May 2012). "American Landscape Photographer Buys An Entire French Village...Cheap". Imaging-resource.com. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  75. Jump up^ Morin, Violaine (19 June 2014). "Yoo Byung-eun dit Ahae, un bien encombrant mécène" [Yoo Byung-eun aka Ahae, a wealthy patron]. Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 20 June 2014.
  76. Jump up^ Lee, Hyo-sik (16 June 2014). "Yoo affects French town's fate". The Korea Times. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
  77. Jump up^ "123 Farm". 123 Farm. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  78. Jump up^ "De ma fenêtre: "Through my window" -Expo photo's dans au Jardin des Tuileries de Paris | Korea Press Production, le site de l'agence de presse coréenne ACPP" (in French). Korea-press-production.com. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  79. Jump up^ "Highland Springs Resort". Hsresort.com. 6 September 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  80. Jump up^ Kim, Yon-se (23 April 2014). "Mogul's home, offices raided in ferry probe". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  81. ^ Jump up to:a b "'청해진해운' 유병언 전 회장 활동명 딴 '아해', 어떤 기업?". Money Today (in Korean) (News.mt.co.kr). 22 April 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  82. Jump up^ Keller, Michelle (19 May 2006). "Making the Guests' Visit Greener". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  83. Jump up^ "Colon hydrotherapy equipment for automatically supplying and blocking certain quantity and temperature of water, and controlling water pressure, spray strength, and spray speed". Patent.ipexl.com. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  84. Jump up^ "IFIA Invention Show – Seoul International Invention Fair COEX, Seoul - 7-11 December 2006". Invention-ifia.ch. 11 December 2006. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  85. Jump up^ "더 나은 라이프스타일 - 내클리어". Naeclear.com. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  86. Jump up^ "Hemato-Centric Life Institute". Hcli.com. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  87. Jump up^ "Board of Directors | Hemato-Centric Life Institute". Web.archive.org. 10 March 2012. Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  88. Jump up^ "2012 Seoul Hemato-Centric Life Forum | Hemato-Centric Life Institute". Web.archive.org. 28 October 2013. Archived from the original on 28 October 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  89. Jump up^ "2013 Seoul Hemato-Centric Life Forum | Hemato-Centric Life Institute". Web.archive.org. 6 April 2013. Archived from the original on 28 October 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  90. Jump up^ 박병역 (24 April 2014). "대한신보! 인류시조성전건립회!". Daehan Sindbo (in Korean) (Daehansinbo.com). Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  91. Jump up^ Lombardi, Francesca (Fall 2012). "Istanti di natura" [Instants of Nature].Venezia Made in Veneto (Gruppo Editoriale srl) (3). Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  92. Jump up^ Shin, Janet (25 May 2014). "(280) Name and fate". The Korea Times. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  93. Jump up^ Harris, Garreth (22 May 2014). "Artist linked to Korean ferry disaster".The Art Newspaper. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  94. Jump up^ 고미석 (24 April 2014). ""사진작가 아해? 처음 듣는 인물" : 뉴스 : 동아닷컴".The Dong-a Ilbo. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  95. Jump up^ 김지훈 (23 May 2014). "유병언 사진전 개최한 파리의 아해프레스 가봤더니...". Money Today (in Korean) (News.mt.co.kr). Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  96. ^ Jump up to:a b Lesauvage, Magali (10 June 2014). "Mécène-artiste, gourou, ennemi public : l'improbable affaire Ahae" [Patron-artist, guru, public enemy: the improbable Ahae case] (in French). Exponaute.com. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  97. ^ Jump up to:a b Knížák, Milan (2012). Book on Ahae. KANT – Karel Kerlicky. p. 295.ISBN 978-80-7437-077-9.
  98. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Kim, Connie (19 May 2014). "Speculation about Sewol-ho ferry owner's whereabouts rises again". Arirang News. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  99. Jump up^ "Events | Hemato-Centric Life Institute". Web.archive.org. 30 February 2013. Archived from the original on 30 February 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  100. Jump up^ "Highland Springs Resort – Exhibition". Hsresort.com. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  101. Jump up^ "Through My Window, Photographs by Ahae". Duggal Connect. 22 April 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  102. Jump up^ "Nature Photography Exhibit Opens in Vanderbilt Hall Today". Grand Central Partnership. 29 April 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  103. Jump up^ "Ahae Exhibition Produced by Duggal at Grand Central Terminal". Pdnonline.com. 18 April 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  104. Jump up^ Furlan, Julia. "New Photo Exhibit by Ahae Opens in Grand Central Station". WNYC. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  105. Jump up^ "Through My Window Solo Exhibition of Photographs by Ahae :: October 2011 :: Art news :: Cassone". Cassone-art.com. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  106. Jump up^ "Artist Ahae Gives Bird's-eye View – Fashion Scoops – Fashion".Women's Wear Daily. 13 October 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  107. ^ Jump up to:a b c Jackson-Stevens, Anna. "The Fourth Moscow Biennale of Contemporary Art". 4th.moscowbiennale.ru. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  108. ^ Jump up to:a b c Milner, Catherine (2 July 2013). "The Extraordinary within the Ordinary, Versailles – review". Financial Times. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  109. Jump up^ "A window on the extraordinary at Versailles | Art Media Agency". En.artmediaagency.com. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  110. Jump up^ Gosling, Emily (27 June 2012). "The Partners creates identity for Louvre exhibition". Design Week. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  111. Jump up^ "National Gallery displays Korean Ahae's photographs in European premiere". Prague Monitor. Czech News Agency. 15 July 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  112. Jump up^ "Ahae Press Exhibition, Lancaster House – Event". Thinkeatdrink.co.uk. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  113. Jump up^ Rogers, Mimi Fronczak (10 August 2011). "Ahae: Through My Window — Galleries — Night & Day". The Prague Post (Praguepost.cz). Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  114. Jump up^ "Ahae Exhibit | Multimedia". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  115. Jump up^ "Ahae – Through my window" (in Italian). Artribune. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  116. Jump up^ Mariotti, Roberto (11 December 2011). "Arte e Arti – articolo – Through my window al MNAF" (in Italian). Artearti.net. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  117. Jump up^ "Ai Magazzini del Sale di Venezia arriva il fotografo Ahae, terza tappa di un tour di due anni. E un milione e mezzo di fotografie" [The photographer Ahae is coming to Venice's Magazzini del Sale, third leg of a two-year tour. And one-and-a-half million of photos] (in Italian). Exibart.com. 21 March 2012. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  118. Jump up^ "South Korea's most wanted man". The Chronicle Herald(Thechronicleherald.ca). 14 June 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
  119. Jump up^ Hasquenoph, Bernard (10 June 2014). "Affaire Ahae : je ne suis pas un fantôme, même si Le Monde m'oublie" [The Ahae Case: I'm no phantom, although Le Monde forgets me] (in French). louvrepourtous.fr. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
  120. ^ Jump up to:a b c La Communauté alternative des Coréens à Paris [The community of Koreans living in Paris] (12 June 2014). "공개편지 – 프랑스 문화부장관, 전 루브르박물관 관장, 베르사이유궁 대표에게" [Open letter [to] The French Culture Minister, former director of The Louvre, Versailles Palace representative] (in French and Korean). Pariscopain.fr. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
  121. Jump up^ Sumer, Rose (14 November 2012). "Exhibition Designed by NYIT Professor Prepares for 2013 Tour | NYIT". Nyit.edu. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  122. Jump up^ "Le hameau de Courbefy adjugé 520 000 euros à l'artiste Ahae". Le Point (in French). Agence France-Presse. 21 May 2012. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  123. Jump up^ McCarthy, Michael (8 October 2012). "Ahae Photo Exhibit in Paris". ateliervagabond.com. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  124. Jump up^ Ian Sapiro (16 July 2013). Ilan Eshkeri's Stardust: A Film Score Guide. Scarecrow Press. pp. 14–. ISBN 978-0-8108-9166-1.
  125. Jump up^ "Through My Window: A Tone Poem in Twelve Parts". Ilaneshkeri.com. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  126. Jump up^ "record a symphonic suite with Ilan Eshkeri.". LMO. 9 July 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  127. Jump up^ "Ahae Through My Window (Blu-ray)". Ahaeproducts.com. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  128. Jump up^ "Michael Nyman: Through The Only Window — String Quartet & Piano (Score/Parts) - String Quartet/Piano Chamber Score and Parts — Sheet Music & Songbooks". Musicroom.com. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  129. Jump up^ "Music Sales Group – The Music Sales Catalogue". Musicsales.com. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  130. Jump up^ "Michael Nyman Through The Only Window (Music CD) - by Ahae Products". Ahaeproducts.com. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  131. ^ Jump up to:a b Mathieu, Beatrice (10 June 2014). "Ahae, artiste, gangster... et mécène du Louvre" [Ahae, artist, gangster ... and patron of the Louvre]. L'Express(in French). Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  132. ^ Jump up to:a b c Hasquenoph, Bernard (29 August 2013).